to install an old orthography Malayalam Unicode font which is required to read the posts below]
When C1 + VA is represented with subscript form of VA, then it means, C1 is actually Chillu-C1; but couldn't be written that way because Chillu-C1 is deprecated.
Correspondingly, for these clusters, VA is not pronounced as semi-vowel-va; instead it is pronounced in 'full'. In Malayalam, യ and ഴ are capable of forming chillu along with others - ന, ണ, റ, ര, ക etc. Among them, Chillu-ഴ exists only in 'very old' words. Chillu-യ is seen no-where. So, C1 can either be ഴ or യ. That infact is the case. The 'zhva' and 'yva' are the only two clusters represented with stacked വ subscript.
- നന്ദി - pronounced as നന്നി
- രവി - pronounced as രെവി; in general words starting in ഗ, ജ, ഡ, ദ, ബ, യ, ര, ല.
- പഠിക്കുക - pronounced as പഠിക്യുക
- നാരങ്ങ - pronounced as നാരങ്യ; another example ഞാന്
- ബ്രഹ്മം - pronounced as ബ്രമ്മം or ബ്രംഹം
- ചക്രം - pronounced as ചക്ക്രം
- അതുകൊണ്ട് - pronounced as അത്കൊണ്ട്
When same symbol is used for two sounds:
- ന pronounced as nasal of ത-വര്ഗ്ഗം and റ്റ-വര്ഗ്ഗം
- symbol of റ/ര. Example words: ബ്രഹ്മം, ക്രിയ
- ള് - is the chillu of ള and ഴ
- ര് - is the chillu of റ and ര